Separation Methods

1. Filtration

To separate a solid from a liquid.

2. Evaporation 

To obtain a solid from a solution. This solid must be stable to heat. e.g. sodium chloride.

3. Crystallization

To separate a solid from a solution.

4. Distillation

To obtain a solvent from a solution.

5. Fractional distillation

To separate miscible liquids with different boiling points. The liquid with the lowest boiling point will be separated first.

6. Using a separating funnel

To separate immiscible liquids. The denser liquid is found at the lower portion of the separating funnel, and can be obtained by opening the tap at the bottom of the funnel.

7. Chromatography

To separate the different components of ink, dyes, etc. This separation method is achieved by the different solubility of the solutes in the solvent. The most soluble solute will travel the furthest from the starting point.


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4 comments:

  1. Hi when is this syllabus from?

    ReplyDelete
  2. Hi! This syllabus has been tested in the Singapore O levels for quite some time. For more details on the syllabus, you may like to check out the following site:
    http://www.seab.gov.sg/pages/nationalExaminations/GOL/School_Candidates/syllabus.asp for school candidates;
    http://www.seab.gov.sg/pages/nationalExaminations/GOL/School_Candidates/syllabus.asp for private candidates.

    Hope this answers your question.

    Cheers!

    ReplyDelete
  3. hey emily!!! :-)) these notes are brilliant!! i'll be using them for my o levels this year. thank you!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Lynette,
      Thanks for the compliment. All the best for your o levels this year!

      Delete